“Quantum dot (QD)” or, other name, “quantum box”, represents an ultimate case of size quantization in solids, where the motion of the charge carriers is restricted in all three dimensions (3D). The critical condition for the formation of truly atom-like density states is a high quality of interfaces surrounding such nano-objects. Defects at interfaces and the related scattering and nonradiative recombination effects drastically reduce or even eliminate advantages of the 3D nanoobjects. Consequently, heteroepitaxial overgrowth became necessary before all the advantages of zero-dimensional electron spectrum in QDs were implemented both in core-shell colloidal QDs and in epitaxially-grown QD heterostructures.Keywords: Quantum dot, semiconductor heterostructure, laser diode, LED, silicon photonics, cryptography, entanglement, nanoelectronics
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