These days are more and more posing claims for the highest quality of castings from the aluminum alloys and for the lowest weight of these castings. These requirements force producers of such castings to utilize materials properties as much as possible. As one of such properties there is fatigue life which plays a crucial role at dynamically loaded parts. Dynamic working life depends on the many parameters such are loaded parts surface, structure and state of the residual stresses on the surface and so on. This paper deals with the utilization of the diffraction analysis at testing castings (specimens - rods) from the alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 that are poured into the metal mould after different thermal treatment methods. In this case was used diffraction analysis by means of the X-ray tensiometry and qualitative evaluation of structure by the Debye-Scherrer method (back-scattered). At the testing specimens was carried out analysis only on the surface by reason of the non-destructive determination of the residual stresses and real structure of specimens because testing specimens were subsequently tested by fatigue tests. One of the crucial parameters of fatigue life is the residual stress state on the loaded part surface and also its structure. Testing surface of all testing specimens was made by the same technology – turning by the CNC machine.Keywords: Aluminum alloys castings, tensiometry analysis, Debye-Scherrer method
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