The identification of the wear mechanism of the refractory lining of the basic oxygen furnace is a prerequisite for the optimization of the steelmaking process. Knowledge of the way in which a given factor acts on the amortization of the refractory lining is closely related to the development of technological procedures serving to limit their influence. The results of the analysis of the mechanism by which the thickness of basic oxygen furnace refractory lining is reduced during the campaign can be applied to the development of new refractories with more suitable chemical composition and physical properties. In this respect, the determination of a balanced consumption of gunning materials is also very important, since the expenditure on repair mixtures has a major portion of the total financial cost of the campaign. By determining the optimum consumption of gunning materials, it is possible to define the duration of the basic oxygen converter campaign during which the entire steelmaking process is financially viable for the producer. Based on the literature, the mechanism of wear of refractory lining has been developed. Temperatures from 1,300°C to 1,700°C, which can occur during the steelmaking process in the basic oxygen vessel, were considered. The wear process was divided into logical steps. In each step, the most probable course of the sub-processes and the products of the chemical reactions are described based on thermodynamic data.Keywords: Refractory lining, basic oxygen furnace, wearing mechanism, gunning material
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