With using of anizothermal plain strain compression tests, which were performed on the Hot Deformation Simulator HDS-20, the physical simulation of rolling and following cooling of seamless tubes from steel 42CrMo4 was performed. The aim was to simulate the thermomechanical conditions during piercing as well as rolling in a pilger mill of the seamless tubes with the final diameter of 273 mm (with the wall thickness of 6.3, 20 and 40 mm) and evaluate the influence of the finish rolling temperatures (chosen in the range from 820 to 970 °C) on microstructural and mechanical properties of the investigated steel. In the case of tubes with the wall thickness of 6.3 and 20 mm the highest hardness was reached at finish rolling temperature of 820 °C and the microstructure of samples was formed by majority share of martenzite and minority share of bainite. In the case of simulation of tube rolling with the wall thickness of 40 mm the chosen finish rolling temperatures did not fundamentally influence the hardness of strained samples and final microstructure of all these samples was formed by the mixture of bainite, ferrite and pearlite.Keywords: Seamless tubes, plain strain compression tests, microstructure, hardness
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