Production of crude steel with the help of oxygen processes will produce, according to forecasts also in the future, large portion of the world-wide steel production. In the connection with this fact the blowing systems are being further developed and improved both in case of oxygen converters, hearth furnaces and in case of electric furnaces or their combinations. These systems, for example, serve both for blowing of refining oxygen on the bath surface or into the melt and for blowing of additional combustion oxygen or blowing of the gas mixture with powdered substances. This paper deals with the main design characteristics of the lances for blowing of refining oxygen on the melt surface. These design characteristics help designers and engineers to design systems that meet the high demands on quality, efficiency and operational reliability.Keywords: oxygen blowing, oxygen converters, hearth furnace, tuyeres for oxygen blowing, steelmaking
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