The solidification of liquid steel is generally accompanied with different phenomena, like solidification shrinkage and a change of the solubility limit of alloying elements. These phenomena are the base for negative side effects like micro- and macrosegregation as well as the formation of shrinkage cavity and gas porosity. This paper focuses on the formation of shrinkage cavity during solidification of steel through the numerical simulation and experimental validation in ingot casting.The first part of the paper deals with the performed lab experiments at the Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy. Three different ingots were cast with varying cooling conditions and hot topping configurations. The metallographic examination shows substantial differences between the cast ingots regarding the cavity formation at the ingot center.Further the used method to predict the formation of shrinkage cavity is briefly described. Thereby the needed solidification parameter for the criterion and the determination of those are discussed. The method is implemented at the numerical model of the lab experiments whereby the solidification software ProCAST was used. The extent of experimentally determined pores is in good agreement with the numerical calculation. Especially the cooling conditions have an influence on the extent of cavity formation which was well reflected from the numerical model. Finally this criterion can be used for other casting process to predict the formation of shrinkage porosities.Keywords: Solidification, Pore formation, Ingot, Simulation, Niyama
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