A SHORT HISTORY OF THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN CENTRAL EUROPE DURING THE ROMAN IRON AGE

1 CONSTANTINESCU Dan
Co-authors:
1 CÂRLAN Beatrice Adriana
Institution:
1 University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Science and Materials Engineering, EU
Conference:
25th Anniversary International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, Hotel Voronez I, Brno, Czech Republic, EU, May 25th - 27th 2016
Proceedings:
Proceedings 25th Anniversary International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials
Pages:
72-77
ISBN:
978-80-87294-67-3
ISSN:
2694-9296
Published:
14th December 2016
Proceedings of the conference were published in Web of Science and Scopus.
Metrics:
106 views / 68 downloads
Abstract

Metallurgy includes the oldest branch of technology and science of the humanity. Starting with discovering of the first metals till the actual nanostructures and special alloyed materials, the evolution of the metallurgy is fascinating.The ferrous metallurgy had a fast evolution during time. The technical processes are in continuous changing, depending on humanity demands. The present article limits only to some milestones regarding the evolution of the thermal aggregates used for iron manufacturing. There are presented some processing technologies of iron ore in Europe, starting with the proto-metallurgy, when the used row material was the meteorite iron. At the beginning, human believed that everything must remain hidden in the basement. Also, the entire equipment was rudimentary, constructed by wood, burned clay or iron and had specific forms, seemingly a cavity. Later, humanity began to understand the iron ore importance, starting to use iron for many activities. Being such a big demand, there has been an evolution of the iron ore processing instruments that has reflected in materials, shape and techniques. The main objective was to ease people’s work and to increase their productivity. The article has in view the primary extractive processes and the processing methods as puddling, forging or casting.In the context of Central European ferrous metallurgy, it is interesting to have a perspective view of the processes evolution, by comparing the rudimentary techniques with the modern ones, to understand better where we come from and where we are heading.

Keywords: Iron, steel, ferrous metallurgy, history, technologies.

© This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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